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External validity single case study

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Hall, R. Effects of teacher attention on study behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis , 1 , 1— For each of several days, the researchers carefully recorded whether or not each student was doing schoolwork every 10 seconds during a minute period.

Understanding external validity

External validity single case study
External validity single case study
External validity single case study

External validity - Wikipedia

Background and purpose: The purpose of this article is to describe single-case studies and contrast them with case studies and randomized clinical trials. We highlight current research designs, analysis techniques, and quality appraisal tools relevant for single-case rehabilitation research. Summary of key points: Single-case studies can provide a viable alternative to large group studies such as randomized clinical trials. Single-case studies involve repeated measures and manipulation of an independent variable. They can be designed to have strong internal validity for assessing causal relationships between interventions and outcomes, as well as external validity for generalizability of results, particularly when the study designs incorporate replication, randomization, and multiple participants. Recommendations for clinical practice: When rigorously designed, single-case studies can be particularly useful experimental designs in a variety of situations, such as when research resources are limited, studied conditions have low incidences, or when examining effects of novel or expensive interventions.

Understanding internal validity

Using selected examples from within the International Relations literature[1], this paper aims to provide a brief overview of the main principles and distinctive advantages and limitations of single case study analysis. Divided into three inter-related sections, the paper therefore begins by first identifying the underlying principles that serve to constitute the case study as a particular research strategy, noting the somewhat contested nature of the approach in ontological, epistemological, and methodological terms. The final section of the paper then discusses the most commonly articulated limitations of single case studies; while accepting their susceptibility to criticism, it is however suggested that such weaknesses are somewhat exaggerated. The paper concludes that single case study analysis has a great deal to offer as a means of both understanding and explaining contemporary international relations. It is possible, however, to distil some of the more commonly-agreed principles.
Internal and external validity are concepts that reflect whether or not the results of a study are trustworthy and meaningful. While internal validity relates to how well a study is conducted its structure , external validity relates to how applicable the findings are to the real world. Internal validity is the extent to which a study establishes a trustworthy cause-and-effect relationship between a treatment and an outcome. For example, if you implement a smoking cessation program with a group of individuals, how sure can you be that any improvement seen in the treatment group is due to the treatment that you administered?
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